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What are the inspection and supervision requirements for exported lithium batteries?

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With the vigorous development of electronic technology, electronic facilities and equipment put forward high requirements for power supply. Lithium batteries are widely used as power supply in new energy vehicles, mobile phones, notebook computers, electric tools, cardiac pacemakers, backup power supplies, household appliances, etc. At the same time, the dangerous characteristics of lithium batteries can not be ignored.
 
 
 
1、 What is a lithium battery?
 
Lithium battery is a kind of battery with lithium metal or lithium alloy as positive / negative material and non-aqueous electrolyte solution. Lithium metal battery was first proposed and studied by Gilbert n. Lewis in 1912. In the 1970s, M. S. Whittingham proposed and began to study lithium-ion batteries. Because the chemical properties of lithium metal are very active, the processing, storage and use of lithium metal have very high requirements for the environment.
 
2、 Classification of lithium batteries:
 
(1)Lithium metal battery
 
Lithium metal batteries generally use manganese dioxide as the cathode material, lithium metal or its alloy metal as the cathode material, and non-aqueous electrolyte solution.
 
(2)Lithium ion battery
 
Lithium ion batteries generally use lithium alloy metal oxide as cathode material, graphite as cathode material and non-aqueous electrolyte.
 
3、 Are lithium batteries dangerous goods?
 
According to the provisions of international regulations such as the United Nations' Model Regulations on the recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods, the international maritime dangerous goods code, the ICAO technical code for the safe transport of dangerous goods by air and other international regulations, lithium batteries may belong to category 9 miscellaneous dangerous goods (Miscellaneous dangerous substances and goods, including substances hazardous to the environment), and the United Nations numbers involve un3090, un3091, un3480, un3481, etc.
 
4、 Does lithium battery need to be packed with dangerous goods?
 
In accordance with the provisions of the United Nations "Model Regulations for the recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods", it is necessary to determine whether to use dangerous goods packaging according to the capacity of lithium batteries.
 
Lithium batteries that need to be packed with dangerous goods are:
 
Lithium metal battery or lithium alloy battery, the lithium content is greater than 1G, for lithium metal or lithium alloy battery pack, the total lithium content is greater than 2G; For lithium-ion batteries, the watt hour rating exceeds 20W · h, and for lithium-ion battery packs, the watt hour rating exceeds 100W · H.
 
5、 Test requirements for lithium battery before delivery and transportation:
 
According to the requirements of Article 230 of special provisions of articles 2.9.4 and 3.3 in the United Nations Model Regulations on the transport of dangerous goods, as well as the provisions of the international maritime dangerous goods code and the international civil aviation organization technical rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods by air, lithium batteries need to pass the series of tests required by 38.3 of Part III of the United Nations Manual of recommendations and standards on the transport of dangerous goods before delivery and transportation, The test contents include: high simulation, high and low temperature cycle test, vibration test, impact test, 55 ℃ external short circuit, impact test / extrusion test, overcharge test, forced discharge test, etc., to ensure the safety of lithium battery transportation.
 
6、 Do you need to go through any procedures for exporting lithium batteries?
 
Article 17 of the law of the people's Republic of China on import and export commodity inspection stipulates that "enterprises that produce packaging containers for export dangerous goods must apply to the commodity inspection authorities for the performance appraisal of packaging containers. Enterprises that produce export dangerous goods must apply to the commodity inspection authorities for the use appraisal of packaging containers. Dangerous goods that use unqualified packaging containers are not allowed to be exported."
 
Therefore, for lithium batteries that need to be packaged with dangerous goods, they should apply to the local customs for the performance inspection and use appraisal of the packaging of dangerous goods for export before export, and obtain the "inspection result sheet of the performance of the transportation packaging of exit goods" and the "appraisal result sheet of the use of the transportation packaging of exit dangerous goods". The documents submitted by enterprises can be simplified according to the announcement on the electronization of inspection and quarantine documents (Announcement No. 90 of the General Administration of Customs in 2018) and other relevant provisions.
 
(1) Packaging performance inspection of dangerous goods for export
 
The inspection result sheet of transportation packaging performance of exit goods shall be applied by the packaging production enterprise of dangerous goods to the local customs, and the code of the packaging production enterprise of export dangerous goods shall be obtained before the application.
 
The validity period of the performance inspection result sheet shall be determined according to the material nature of the packaging container and the nature of the goods loaded. Generally, it shall not exceed 12 months from the date of container production. If the goods are not shipped for export within the validity period and the outer packaging is in good condition, the enterprise can re apply for packaging performance inspection, and can continue to be used for export after passing the inspection. The re issued "inspection result sheet of packaging performance of entry-exit goods" shall be calculated from the date of completion of the inspection, and the validity period shall not exceed 6 months.
 
Tip: what is the code of the packaging manufacturer of export dangerous goods?
 
The customs implements code management on the packaging production enterprises of export dangerous goods, and the code should reflect the customs information directly under the region where the production enterprises are located. The production enterprise code is composed of capital English letter C (representing "Customs") and six Arabic numerals. The first two Arabic numerals represent the customs directly under the region where the enterprise is located (for example, 52 represents Huangpu Customs), and the last four Arabic numerals 0001-9999 represent the production enterprise.
 
(2) Identification of packaging use of dangerous goods for export
 
The "identification result sheet for the use of transportation packages of outbound dangerous goods" is applied to the territorial customs by the production enterprise of dangerous goods (i.e. lithium battery manufacturer or exporter). The lithium battery must be marked with rated energy (w · h). When the customs carries out the identification of the use of dangerous packages, it will be judged as qualified according to the following contents:
 
1. Whether the packaging container is printed with clear, firm and correct UN packaging marks, batch and dangerous goods marks, and whether the marks, marks and packaging meet the relevant requirements.
 
2. The appearance of the package should be clean, and there should be no residue, pollution or leakage.
 
3. Wooden cases and fiberboard cases shall be firmly nailed when fastened with nails, and the nail tips shall be reversed, and the nail tips and nail caps shall not protrude; The box shall be intact and packed with tight hoops. The corrugated box shall be intact, the seal shall be flat and firm, and the box shall be packed with tight hoops.
 
4. Non conductive materials shall be separated between each battery or battery pack and between the upper and lower layers of stacked batteries to prevent mutual contact.
 
5. The battery shall be equipped with a protective device against short circuit.
 
6. The electrode of the battery shall not support the mass of other superimposed batteries.
 
7. Special provisions on the packaging of lithium batteries or lithium battery packs in international regulations.
 
The customs will issue the inspection result sheet of the performance of the transportation package of exit goods and the identification result sheet of the use of the transportation package of exit dangerous goods after the inspection of the package of export dangerous goods is qualified, and the validity period of the certificate will be determined according to the characteristics of the goods and the mode of transportation.